Synthetic biology is a field of science that deals with engineering and redesigning biological systems. The design of genetic circuits is inspired by electronics and computer science. Genetic circuits can perform logical functions mimicking those observed in electronic circuits and exhibit control over the flow of information in biological systems. Genetic circuit design should follow the principles of modularity, orthogonality, predictability, and reliability.
In recent years, progress in genetic engineering makes it possible to construct novel genetic circuits with different functions and activation mechanisms. Moreover, the development of new tools, including high-throughput DNA assembly and characterization, computer-aided design, and design automation software, enables rapid and automated design and assembly of genetic circuits. These have the potential to accelerate the design of larger gene circuits, thereby increasing our understanding of circuits and host behavior.